King of England, Scotland and Ireland (1600 - 1649), Charles’s last years of reign were marked by the English Civil War, in which he was opposed by the forces of Parliament, which challenged his attempts to augment his own power, and by Puritans, who were hostile to his religious policies and supposed Catholic sympathies. We have a rare and historically important autograph letter to his nephew and leader of the Royalist cavalries Prince Rupert, dated 14th July 1645. The King and Rupert had met at Crick just two days before this letter. Written shortly before the fall of Bristol, the King informs Prince Rupert that he has commanded (George) Digby to send in cipher details of his resolution "wh(ic)h is differying from what I was most inclyned to when I saw you last... albeit I cannot say that the affermative is so absolutely concluded on as the negative; the particulars being of some lenth and greatest secrecie", and expressing his confidence in and affection for Rupert. The King also thanks him for arms and powder, and repeats his promise to send two regiments. Rupert returned to Bristol to consolidate his position there before the King was to arrive to make it his headquarters. The surrender of Bridgwater on 23 July had, however, made this plan impossible, and in the confusion Charles gave Rupert no clear indication of his revised plans. The siege of Bristol by Fairfax began on 21 August, and the city fell on 10 September when Rupert called for a treaty. The surrender of Bristol enraged Charles, who was encouraged by Digby to believe that Rupert had betrayed him. He dismissed his nephew from his service and Rupert left for exile in Holland. Charles was defeated in the first Civil War (1642 - 1645), after which Parliament expected him to accept demands for a constitutional monarchy. He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight. This provoked a second Civil War (1648 - 1649) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason. An excellent piece of English history.